‘The Toronto Purchase’

Whose ‘Traditional Land’ Is This? 


Even though the Nation of Canada and the City of Toronto recently hosted the Pan Am Games – and the financially-inept Ontario government absorbed most of the $2.5 billion in costs – people from faraway lands were greeted with this:

“The Mississaugas Of The New Credit ‘First Nation’ is proud to be the host ‘first nation’ of the Toronto2015 Pan Am/Parapan Am games. 

“As chief of the Mississaugas, I welcome you to our traditional lands…”


{This Land Is Our Land, Canada 2015 – Michele Tittler on race based land claims: https://youtu.be/w2MLu3-7vAg }

This foolishness {“our traditional lands”} went by with virtually no comment from Canadian historians or our governments; indeed, our governments were complicit in spreading what amounts to an historical lie. This has become commonplace, with Canadian officials constantly thanking the ‘traditional’ landowners, even when — as in this case — their claim is ridiculous… One of the many treaties/land surrender agreements that have been reopened in recent years concerns the city of Toronto. In 2010 , the Canadian government paid the Mississaugas of the New Credit ‘First Nation’ $145 million, supposedly the shortfall for land purchases between the 1780’s and 1805.

Aside from the fact that no land was worth $145 million in 1805, there is the reality that the Mississaugas stole the land from the Iroquois around 1700 — the same land that the Iroquois had stolen when they massacred the Huron around 1650.  So, why is the Canadian government paying them for stolen land that isn’t their ‘traditional territory’, and that they only occupied for 100 years — after all, the Canadian city of Toronto has existed there for longer than that {“In 1793, Toronto, then known as ‘York’, was named capital of the new colony of Upper Canada. York was incorporated and renamed ‘Toronto’ in 1834.”}. 

"Massacre of the Hurons" by Joseph Légaré
“Massacre of the Hurons” by Joseph Légaré

At  a Glance: The Claims

“The ‘First Nation’s claims date back to events that took place over 200  years ago. One claim (called the  Brant Tract claim) deals with a 1797 land purchase and the other claim relates  to the Toronto Purchase of 1805. Simply put, the basis of both claims is that Canada did not provide the ‘First  Nation’ with “adequate compensation” for the land at the time it was purchased.”


‘Overview of the Brant Tract Specific Claim’

“The Brant Tract Specific Claim relates to the Crown’s purchase of land from the River Credit Mississaugas in 1797.  Through this purchase, the Mississaugas surrendered 3,450 acres of land located near Burlington Bay on Lake Ontario.  The basis of this claim is that the Crown paid less for the land in 1797 than had been promised at an earlier date.” 

‘Overview of the Toronto Purchase Claim’

“The Toronto Purchase claim relates to the Crown’s purchase of approximately 250,880 acres of land from the River Credit Mississaugas in 1805… The southern border ran 14 miles from just east of Ashbridge’s Bay to Etobicoke Creek, and then 28 miles north at both the eastern and western boundary. The northern boundary was also 14 miles across.  The Toronto Islands, which were a peninsula in 1805, were also included in this surrender.  Through the 1805 purchase, THE MISSISSAUGAS SURRENDERED MOST OF WHAT IS NOW METROPOLITAN TORONTO.  The current ownership of these lands is not at issue in this claim, as this claim is for financial compensation only.” {CAPS added}

‘Settlement Proposal’

“Canada has made an offer to settle the claims and the ‘First Nation’ has agreed to put this offer to a vote by its members…  A settlement will not have a land component; these claims are for financial compensation only.

“These claims involve compensation for past damages; they do not involve compensation for the current value of the land…”

This is absurd nonsense. We are supposed to believe that the price of this land in 1805 was $145 million???

“On January 25, 2010, Canada made an offer of $145 million to settle the Brant Tract and the Toronto Purchase specific claims, marking a breakthrough in negotiations. Following this, Canada and the ‘First Nation’ drafted the legal text of a settlement agreement.

” ‘First Nation’ members approved the settlement agreement in a vote that took place on May 29, 2010, and Canada finalized the settlement on October 8, 2010.

“In return for this compensation, the ‘First Nation’ will provide Canada with releases that ensure the claim can never be re-opened. Settlements must bring closure for all concerned.”

That’s the ONLY positive to come out of this but how much can we really believe it, as long as we have Race Based Law ‘interpreted’ by the Supreme Court of Canada?


Here’s the historical background for what we here at ERBL can only regard as yet another scam:

“The Mississaugas, a branch of the Ojibwa or Chippewa Indians, were occupying lands on the north shore of Lake Huron when they first encountered Europeans in the early 17th century.

“To the south of the Mississaugas resided the Hurons, who at that time inhabited the lands around Georgian Bay, south to the north shore of Lake Ontario.  Across Lake Ontario, in present-day New York State, lay the territory of the Iroquois, who were organized into a confederacy of Five Nations.

“…the Iroquois Confederacy began to invade the territory of the Hurons {southern Ontario} around 1640, and had succeeded in completely displacing the latter by 1650.

“Now in control of the north shore of Lake Ontario, the Iroquois Confederacy pressed forward against the Ojibwa allies of the Hurons, including the Mississaugas… In this, the Iroquois were initially successful. Better armed by the Dutch than the Hurons and Ojibwas had been by the French, the Iroquois were able to maintain control of the region for the next 40 years.

“Although the Mississaugas had been subject to attacks by the Iroquois throughout this period, they had not been defeated. When attacked in THEIR OWN TERRITORY NEAR LAKE HURON, they were often able to repel or vanquish their attackers. They continued to trade with the French via the more northerly canoe routes leading to Quebec and Trois-Rivières. As a result, they were able to obtain more arms and ammunition…

“During the latter part of the 17th century, the Iroquois Confederacy was seriously weakened by the wars with the French and by debilitating diseases. 

“As a result, the Confederacy concluded a peace agreement with New France in 1667 and ceased hostilities against the Mississaugas.  This situation not only gave the Mississaugas unimpeded access to their French trading partners, it also enabled them to trade with the Iroquois for better-priced British goods. 

'French-Iroquois Conflict, 1665-66'
‘French-Iroquois Conflict, 1665-66’

“This period of stability continued until the 1690s. It enabled the Mississaugas not only to increase in number, but also to consolidate their strength, as a result of the availability of more trade goods at a cheaper cost.

“They were not to remain content with the status quo, however. Beginning in 1695, the Ojibwas went on the offensive against the Iroquois Confederacy, in part to avenge the raids of the 1650s, and in part to eliminate the Iroquois as middlemen in the trade with the English.

“In the course of this conflict, the Mississaugas began to penetrate into southern Ontario, to engage in battles with the Iroquois.

“By 1700, the Mississaugas had succeeded in expelling the Iroquois and taken control of the north shore of Lake Ontario. In that year, representatives of the Mississaugas and other Ojibwa groups travelled to Onondaga, the capital of the Iroquois Confederacy, with an offer of peace. In exchange for the Confederacy’s recognition of the Mississaugas’ territorial control, and an agreement to allow them direct access to English fur traders, the Mississaugas offered to cease hostilities.

“The offer of peace was accepted in June 1700, and as a result, the Mississaugas secured their control of the territory between Lake Huron and Lake Ontario. They would occupy these lands until the land cessions of the late 18th and early 19th centuries…

“By the 1730s, it was estimated that the Mississaugas of southern Ontario numbered between 1,000 and 1,500 people. Semi-nomadic, they spent the summers in villages near the mouths of rivers and creeks emptying into Lake Ontario… 

Mississaugas“As early as 1781, the Mississaugas had surrendered a strip of land along the entire west bank of the Niagara River from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. This transaction had arisen as a result of then-Governor Haldimand’s scheme to strengthen British military outposts on the Great Lakes by establishing agricultural settlements in their immediate vicinity. In addition, the British authorities needed land for some of THE IROQUOIS OF NEW YORK STATE, who had been OFFERED ASYLUM IN CANADA.

“As a result, in 1783, the Mississaugas were persuaded to surrender land at Quinte for this purpose. 

Sir John Johnson carrying out the Toronto Purchase at the Bay of Quinte
Sir John Johnson carrying out the Toronto Purchase at the Bay of Quinte

“By the mid-1780s, the British authorities had decided to allow the loyalist refugees to settle in large numbers in the territory that the Royal Proclamation had decreed was Indian land. It was therefore necessary to acquire land from the Mississaugas for some 10,000 United Empire Loyalists  who flooded into southern Ontario between 1783 and 1785.

“As well, several thousand Iroquois under the leadership of Joseph Brant had indicated their desire to settle at the western end of Lake Ontario, rather than at Quinte.

“As a result, in 1784 the Mississaugas surrendered a huge tract of land in the Niagara peninsula, which included land on the Grand River for the Iroquois…

“It was shortly after this exchange that a tract of land banding the north shore of Lake Ontario, as well as the “Carrying Place” of Toronto, came to the attention of the British colonial authorities. The Carrying Place was an ancient aboriginal portage from the mouth of the Humber River to the Holland River, part of the route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron that wound northward via Lake Simcoe and from there to Georgian Bay. It had been in use long before the Mississaugas settled permanently on the shores of Lake Ontario, and was well known to French explorers such as La Salle, who traversed it in the late 17th century on his way to and from the Mississippi. After the Mississaugas arrived in the region, it remained part of the regular transportation route into their hinterland…

“..the colonial authorities were persuaded of the value of the Toronto ‘Carrying Place’, and of the adjacent site of Toronto,  and decided to secure the land in question. As the land was subject to the terms of the Royal Proclamation, however, it became necessary to negotiate with the Mississaugas once more… 

This map shows the original area covered by the Toronto Purchase (September 23, 1787).
This map shows the original area covered by the Toronto Purchase (September 23, 1787).

“In any event, the vagueness of the original 1787 surrender document, together with the many discrepancies in the accounts of its surrounding circumstances, presaged future doubts as to the surrender’s validity…

“Governor General Prescott consulted Sir John Johnson for a full report on the original transaction.  Johnson replied that THE INDIANS HAD BEEN FULLY COMPENSATED and that he had never heard them deny the 1787 sale, but that to ease the minds of administrators, it would be advisable to have the Mississaugas sign a survey plan and a new deed dealing with all purchases north of Lake Ontario since 1784…” 

ChiefYellowhead“…At the meeting, Chief Yellowhead, through an interpreter, apparently confirmed that the lands south of Lake Simcoe, including the Carrying Place, had been sold in accordance with the government’s understanding.   Russell wrote to Prescott the next day to advise him of the Chiefs’ reaction, and to inform him that the Executive Council was of the opinion that, in light of the views expressed by the Indians, IT WAS NO LONGER NECESSARY TO OBTAIN A NEW DEED FOR THE TORONTO PURCHASE…

“The first meeting between the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, William Claus, and the Mississaugas took place on July 31, 1805, at the Credit River. According to minutes taken at the time, Claus informed the Mississaugas that the exact limits of the 1787 purchase had not been adequately defined at the time of the original negotiations, and that he wished to ascertain their view as to the correct boundary, so that a new deed could be drafted and executed.

“Chief Quinepenon, the spokesman for the Mississaugas, stated:

“All the Chiefs who sold the Land you speak of are dead and gone. I now speak for all the Chiefs of the Mississaugues; We cannot absolutely tell what our old people did before us, except by what we see on the plan now produced & what we remember ourselves and have been told…” 

"The area labelled "Toronto" marks the site of the French trading fort abandoned 30 years earlier. The ruins, today near the bandshell in the CNE grounds, have recently been excavated.”
“The area labelled “Toronto” marks the site of the French trading fort abandoned 30 years earlier. The ruins, today near the bandshell in the CNE grounds, have recently been excavated.”

“The formal deed of surrender confirming the Toronto purchase was drawn up and executed on August 1, 1805, the date that the surrender of the Mississauga tract was negotiated. In addition to confirming the 1787 transaction made with Sir John Johnson, the deed included a detailed legal description of the boundaries of the surrendered parcel, which comprised some 250,880 acres of land, and which was made subject to the ‘First Nation’s right to fish in Etobicoke Creek…

“After the surrender of the Mississauga tract and the confirmation of the Toronto purchase, the colonial government was in control of all of the northern shoreline of Lake Ontario…”

–‘MISSISSAUGAS OF THE NEW CREDIT ‘FIRST NATION’ INQUIRY, TORONTO PURCHASE CLAIM’, Commissioner Daniel J. Bellegarde, Indian Claims Commission, June 2003 {CAPS added}


The Government of Canada agreed to reopen the ‘Toronto Purchase of 1805’ because, according to the federal government, “Canada did not provide the ‘First Nation’ with adequate compensation for the land at the time it was purchased.”

But why, when at that time:

“Governor General Prescott consulted Sir John Johnson for a full report on the original transaction. Johnson replied that THE INDIANS HAD BEEN FULLY COMPENSATED and that he had never heard them deny the 1787 sale…”.

THAT is why there was almost no new money in the 1805 deal — because “adequate compensation” had been provided in the original deal…

On this basis, virtually every Treaty ever negotiated between the Indians and Britain/Canada can now be reopened. Now that the ‘settlers’ have built a country here, of course nothing in the treaties looks like “adequate compensation”. The reply is that they are talking about the value of the land at the time of the purchase. After the passage of 200 years, the concept is ludicrous and will still be coloured by the giant metropolis that now sits on that land…

This legal gold mine is now guaranteed to go on virtually forever, unless we remove special rights for ‘First Nations’ from our Constitution and end this nonsense once and for all…

Treaty Text:


“The Government of Canada has been negotiating claims under its Specific Claims Policy since the mid-1970s.

“Specific claims deal with the past ‘grievances’ of ‘First Nations’. These grievances relate to Canada’s obligations under historic treaties or the way it managed ‘First Nation’ funds or assets.”

Note that there is NO GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE FOR CANADIANS who have been wronged by Indian failure to comply with Treaty clauses, i.e., illegal road blockades on surrendered Treaty land; or the interference with resource extraction on surrendered Treaty land…

“As of August 31, 2010, over 820 specific claims have been concluded across the country, including 334 claims resolved through negotiated settlements. Canada’s contribution to these settlements has ranged in value from $15,000 to $125 million, with an average settlement value of $6.4 million.”

Folks, that means $6.4 million X 334 claims = approximately $2 BILLION spent — not on NEW land settlements, but on giving more for the Treaties that were signed over 100 years ago…


The final statement on this Government of Canada page:

“Canada is committed to honouring its outstanding lawful obligations to ‘First Nations’ and to resolving outstanding claims for the benefit of all Canadians.”

The first part of this is demonstrably true;  the second part is demonstrably false.

At these negotiating sessions, there are 2 sides:

the Indian side, as represented by their own lawyers, ‘experts’, etc.,

and the Indian side, as represented by the federal government.

This comes about from the Supreme Court of Canada continually reminding the Canadian government that, because of the Indian Act and Section 35, the federal government are the legal ‘fiduciary agents’ of the Indian bands, and therefore must always act in the Indians’ best interest; in addition, the government has been court-ordered to always give ‘First Nations’ the benefit of the doubt, in order to preserve the “Honour of the Crown”.

The Supreme Court never mentions the “fiduciary responsibility” that the federal government owes the Canadian taxpayers.

This results in no one being responsible for “resolving outstanding claims for the benefit of all Canadians”.

Welcome to a nation with Race Based Law in its Constitution…




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